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Reinstating the state or context makes recall easier by providing relevant information, while retrieval failure occurs when appropriate cues are not present. For example, when we are in a different context i. Retrieval cues may be based on context-the setting or situation in which information is encoded and retrieved. Examples include a particular room, driving along a motorway, a certain group of people, a rainy day and so on.

Context also refers to the way information is presented. For example, words may be printed, spoken or sung, they may be presented in meaningful groups - in categories such as lists of animals or furniture - or as a random collection without any link between them. Evidence indicates that retrieval is more likely when the context at encoding matches the context at retrieval. You may have experienced the effect of context on memory if you have ever visited a place where you once lived or an old school.

Often such as visit helps people recall lots of experiences about the time they spent there which they did not realize were stored in their memory. A number of experiments have indicated the importance of context-based cues for retrieval. An experiment conducted by Tulving and Pearlstone asked participants to learn lists of words belonging to different categories, for example names of animals, clothing and sports.

Participants were then asked to recall the words.

Inhibition of Memory Formation. | JAMA Neurology | JAMA Network

Those who were given the category names recalled substantially more words than those who were not. The categories provided a context, and naming the categories provided retrieval cues. Tulving and Pearlstone argued that cue-dependent forgetting explains the difference between the two groups of participants. Those who recalled fewer words lacked appropriate retrieval cues.

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An interesting experiment conducted by Baddeley indicates the importance of setting for retrieval. Baddeley asked deep-sea divers to memorize a list of words. One group did this on the beach and the other group underwater. When they were asked to remember the words half of the beach learners remained on the beach, the rest had to recall underwater. Half of the underwater group remained there and the others had to recall on the beach.

The results show that those who had recalled in the same environment i. This suggests that the retrieval of information is improved if it occurs in the context in which it was learned.

Effects of alcohol on memory

The basic idea behind state-dependent retrieval is that memory will be best when a person's physical or psychological state is similar at encoding and retrieval. For example, if someone tells you a joke on Saturday night after a few drinks, you'll be more likely to remember it when you're in a similar state - at a later date after a few more drinks.

Stone cold sober on Monday morning, you'll be more likely to forget the joke. State retrieval clues may be based on state-the physical or psychological state of the person when information is encoded and retrieved. For example, a person may be alert, tired, happy, sad, drunk or sober when the information was encoded. They will be more likely to retrieve the information when they are in a similar state. However, cue-dependent forgetting has also been shown with internal cues e. Information about current mood state is often stored in the memory trace, and there is more forgetting if the mood state at the time of retrieval is different.

The notion that there should be less forgetting when the mood state at learning and at retrieval is the same is generally known as mood-state-dependent memory. A study by Goodwin et al. They found that when people encoded information when drunk, they were more likely to recall it in the same state. For example, when they hid money and alcohol when drunk, they were unlikely to find them when sober. However, when they were drunk again, they often discovered the hiding place.

Other studies found similar state-dependent effects when participants were given drugs such as marijuana. People tend to remember material better when there is a match between their mood at learning and at retrieval. The effects are stronger when the participants are in a positive mood than a negative mood. They are also greater when people try to remember events having personal relevance.

According to retrieval-failure theory, forgetting occurs when information is available in LTM but is not accessible. Accessibility depends in large part on retrieval cues. Forgetting is greatest when context and state are very different at encoding and retrieval. In this situation, retrieval cues are absent and the likely result is cue-dependent forgetting.

There is considerable evidence to support this theory of forgetting from laboratory experiments. The ecological validity of these experiments can be questioned, but their findings are supported by evidence from outside the laboratory.

Memory: Encoding, Storage, and Retrieval

For example, many people say they can't remember much about their childhood or their school days. But returning to the house in which they spent their childhood or attending a school reunion often provides retrieval cues which trigger a flood of memories. Atkinson, R. In Spence, K. The psychology of learning and motivation Volume 2. New York: Academic Press. Baddeley, A.

Human memory: Theory and Practice Revised Edition. Hove: Psychology Press. Human Memory: Theory and Practice. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Working memory: The multiple-component model. Shah Eds. Brown, John Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology , 10, Godden, D. Context-dependent memory in two natural environments: On land and underwater. British Journal of Psychology , 66 3 , Here, we used a neuron-specific chemogenetic approach to manipulate the excitability of mouse BA neurons during auditory fear conditioning. Further, either chemogenetic stimulation of BA GABA neurons or chemogenetic inhibition of BA pyramidal neurons was sufficient to generate the formation of an association between a behavior and a neutral auditory cue.

This chemogenetic memory required presentation of a discrete cue, and was not attributable to an effect of BA pyramidal neuron inhibition on general freezing behavior, locomotor activity, or anxiety. Collectively, these data suggest that BA GABA neuron activation and the subsequent inhibition of BA pyramidal neurons play important role in fear learning.

Moreover, the roles of inhibitory signaling differ between the LA and BA, with excitation of pyramidal neurons promoting memory formation in the former, and inhibition of pyramidal neurons playing this role in the latter. Inhibition of pyramidal neurons in the basal amygdala promotes fear learning. N2 - The basolateral amygdala complex, which contains the lateral LA and basal BA subnuclei, is a critical substrate of associative learning related to reward and aversive stimuli.

Indeed, HDAC inhibition appears to facilitate memory by altering the dynamics of gene expression events for consolidation, however less understood is how molecular-level consolidation processes alter subsequent memory for enhanced storage or retrieval. Here we used a sensory perspective to investigate from a behavioral-level whether the characteristics of memory formed with HDAC inhibitors are different from naturally-formed memory. One possibility is that HDAC-inhibition enables memory to form with greater sensory detail than normal.

Because the auditory system undergoes learning-induced remodeling that provides substrates for sound-specific LTM, we aimed to identify behavioral effects of HDAC-inhibition on memory for specific sound features using a standard model of auditory associative cue-reward learning.


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The findings support that epigenetic mechanisms act on the sensory acuity and precision of memory, which can be revealed by studying the sensory aspects of long-term associative memory formation with HDAC inhibitors. Rights Copyright for scholarly resources published in RUcore is retained by the copyright holder. By virtue of its appearance in this open access medium, you are free to use this resource, with proper attribution, in educational and other non-commercial settings.

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