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What are Two Main Causes of Changes to the Earth Surface? - Geography Realm

The results suggest that recent changes in global vegetation have had The researchers also created a new method by which scientists Below are relevant articles that may interest you. ScienceDaily shares links with scholarly publications in the TrendMD network and earns revenue from third-party advertisers, where indicated. Living Well. View all the latest top news in the environmental sciences, or browse the topics below:.

Some of these changes take thousands of years but surely they are occurring. When you look around you a mountain, river, plateau, valleys, rock boulders, etc. Fast changes occur through the actions of Earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, etc.

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There are two main causes of change to be mentioned here and they are water action and wind action. The processes used by these actions are known as Weathering and Erosion. Rainfall water from the cloud falls carrying out two major actions, firstly, it dissolves chemicals in the atmosphere and this solution causes chemical reactions on the various surfaces it falls on thereby weakening those surfaces through this action and secondly, by its impact on it wears off the surface.

This second action becomes more vivid when you study the impact of a drop of water on a sandy surface. The impact dislodges the soils particles from others.


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Most years set a new record for OHC and has been no exception so far, with the first three months showing the warmest OHC since records began. Changes in the amount or rate of warming are much easier to detect in the OHC record than on the surface. For example, OHC shows little evidence of the slowdown in warming in the mids, seen in surface temperature records.

Land use change has warmed Earth's surface

It also shows a distinct acceleration after , matching the increased rate of greenhouse gas emissions over the past few decades. The figure below shows the increase in global sea level since it was first measured by satellites in the early s.


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The different coloured lines indicate different satellite missions over the years. Earlier sea level data from tide gauges is also available, with data going back to the late s. For example, sea level increased rapidly from to However, these are relatively small fluctuations around the consistent long-term trend. Overall sea levels have risen around 8.

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This adjustment is relatively small, only adding around 0. Atmospheric methane concentration increased rapidly from the mids through to the early s, before slowing down and ultimately pausing in the late s and s.


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  4. However, starting in , levels of atmospheric methane begane growing again and have seen a notable acceleration over the past four years. The cause of the increase in methane concentrations over the last decade is still a subject of scientific debate. Some studies have suggested that wetlands and rice cultivation in the tropics are the primary culprit and that the expansion of unconventional oil and gas extraction plays a limited role.

    How Hurricanes Change The Earth's Surface

    Others argue that fossil fuels have had just as important a role in the increase as agriculture. Unlike CO2, methane has a relatively short lifetime in the atmosphere, only lasting about nine years on average before breaking down into its component parts. This means that while CO2 keeps accumulating even if emissions remain flat, the amount of methane in the atmosphere is directly related to the rate of emissions.

    This means that increases in atmospheric concentrations in recent years reflect increases in methane emissions. Arctic sea ice spent much of early at the low end of the historical range and has fallen to record lows for this time of year during the past month.

    Antarctic sea ice hit record lows in early January, though it has since recovered a bit. Both the Arctic sea ice winter maximum and Antarctic summer minimum in were the seventh smallest in their respective satellite records. The figure below shows both Arctic and Antarctic sea ice extent in solid red and blue lines , the historical range in the record between and shaded areas and the record lows dotted black line.