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Interest to the topic is apparent as similar sessions are now organized in other scientific gatherings round the world, such as those by the American Geophysical Union and the Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society. Many such issues have been outlined here, others remain outside this review, for example, remote sensing of the ocean waves.

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It is argued that the fourth generation of these spectral models is also foreseeable, when the parameterizations of the energy source functions will be replaced by their physical modeling. New computing capacities and advances in physics and mathematics allow us to use basic equations for simulating wave evolution. Thus, the dynamic modeling is effectively taking on and expanding the function of the laboratory experiments and field observations.

There is an apparent need for additional physics for such models, and coupling with the waves does offer such physics. Besides, the waves and surface winds have been growing globally, both in the mean and in their extremes. Chabchoub et al.

A new dissipation term for spectral wave models, capable of describing the dissipation in the general case, from deep water all the way to surf zone was suggested by Filipot and Ardhuin []. Donelan et al.

Surface waves and wave‐coupled effects in lower atmosphere and upper ocean

In some way this article is connected to the topic of extreme weather conditions which forms another group of papers described below. Cavaleri et al. This paper has an apparent connection to the topic of rogue waves mentioned above. Van der Westhuysen et al. Roland et al. Young et al. Mironov et al. Statistical characterization of short wind waves from stereo images of the sea surface, submitted to Journal of Geophysical Research , researched the statistics of very short waves. They used stereo imaging of the water surface to obtain data for such a rare application.

Five papers study the wind flow and wind stress over the waves, with further four — atmospheric wave boundary layer in extreme conditions. One more article investigates rogue waves in such severe circumstances. As was discussed in Section III, potentially sea drag can depend on very many properties in the boundary layer and on the ocean surface. Ting et al.

MASW (Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves) Data Acquisition

Results of Toffoli et al. Druzhinin et al. Zavadsky and Shemer [] took a detailed look at very young waves in a laboratory tank.

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This paper links the research of wave effects in the boundary layer to the group of papers dedicated to such effects at extreme weather conditions as well as to the topic of wave effects in the atmosphere, such as Rutgersson et al. Papers by Soloviev et al. Specifically, Liu et al. Holthuijsen et al. Important observations of this paper are the different magnitudes of sea drag in different parts of the hurricane footprint.

Waves, water levels and climate change | CoastAdapt

Troitskaya et al. They, however, were able to explain their observations by means of aerodynamic theory only, without having to invoke the effects of spray. Article by Mori [] has links with the groups of papers on rogue waves and on wave modeling above and with the paper by Holthuijsen et al.

Benilov [] offered a framework of the most general importance for the topic. Babanin and Chalikov [] developed a numerical model for such turbulence. Savelyev et al. To complete this group of the papers, Huang et al. Toffoli et al. Huang et al. Song et al. Janssen [] applied his scheme to the simulation of the daily cycle in SST at a specific location in the Arabian Sea and concluded that the dominant processes that control the diurnal cycle are the buoyancy production and turbulent production by wave breaking.

Rutgersson et al. The geometry of film slicks is determined by physical characteristics of surface films and by environmental parameters. At present our understanding of the role of geophysical processes controlling the slick dynamics is still insufficient. This is partly because of the luck of systematic studies of film slicks in controlled experiments. A perspective approach to the problem solution is special experiments with artificial slicks, formed by films with known characteristics.

Previously we reported results of some experiments and proposed a simple model of the spreading of surfactant spills accounting for the surface stresses induced by wind waves and acting on film. In this paper results of new extended experiments are presented and an improved model is developed. The experiments were conducted on the Gorky Water Reservoir.

Surfactants oleic acid or vegetable oil were spilled out from a motor boat. The slick shape was studied using aerial photography and a methodology of contouring slicks with the boat with a GPS receiver onboard.

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It is obtained that the slick cross wind size grows quite slowly in time being almost independent on wind, while the along wind size increases with wind velocity and is fast growing with wind. It describes the movement of surfactants from an upwind slick side to its downwind side under the action of along-wind wave stresses.

This process may contribute also to some additional drift velocity of slicks. The conclusion about the drift is consistent with a hypothesis, discussed in the literature, that oil slicks move faster than surrounding water. Sergievskaya, Stanislav A.

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One of the main problems of remote sensing of oil and oil derivatives spills on the sea surface is quantitative description of the impact of oil on small scale surface waves. Oil spilled on the water surface forms films or layers with thicknesses from 0. The thickness of oil films depends on the volume of spilled oil, an oil chemical composition, wind speed, waves, etc. Wave damping has been well studied for the cases of the water surface covered by monomolecular films.

In this case, the damping is determined by the elasticity of the film and the surface tension coefficient. The parameter of elasticity itself was introduced for monomolecular film. Therefore, the usage of this parameter to describe an oil film having a considerable thickness is generally not indisputable. In this paper, we justified the capability of usage of the phenomenologically introduced parameter - elasticity viscoelasticity for quantitative description of the wave damping due to oil films in the wide range of oil film thickness.

Our analysis was based on a comparison of results of our laboratory measurements and our numerical calculations in the framework of a model of fluid consisting of two viscous layers with elastic viscoelastic parameters on the boundaries. It is shown that the value of viscoelastic parameters on the both boundaries of the upper layer dramatically affects dependences of wave characteristics on the film thickness. Moreover, in the framework of the same theoretical model, the capability of the method of parametric waves to measure the wave damping coefficient on the water surface covered with an elastic film of finite thickness was investigated.

Session 5: Laser Sensing of Water. For decades, Sonar has been the dominating technology for underwater mapping and surveying. As the technology uses acoustic waves, the achievable resolution and accuracy is strictly limited and does not meet the requirements for surveying underwater structures, e. So far, either the strong absorption of water or the harsh environment have hindered alternative approaches based on electromagnetic waves.

Water only offers a small transparency-window in the blue and green spectral-region, making visible-light ranging LiDAR a suitable choice. The Fraunhofer Institute for Physical Measurement Techniques IPM presents a novel and compact underwater laser scanning-system based on the pulsed time-of-flight method.

The device emits light-pulses with nm wavelength.

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Technical structures often incorporate small features with low spatial separation, leading to multiple reflections of a single light-pulse. In order to address this issue, we record the full waveform and use a deconvolution algorithm that is able to recover individual object positions, even when they are only spaced by a 15 cm long gap. A fast variable-gain of the photo-receiver enhances reflections from distant objects and overcomes limitations from scattering and absorption losses. Further, we present underwater measurements of popular test targets.

Our system achieves a point-to-point repeatability with a standard deviation of less than 6 mm and a resolution — tested with a Boehler-Star — of 4 mm. LED mini lidar has been developed and installed into the sea wave dynamics visualization. This study aims mini-lidar installation to small fishing ship and pleasure boat. In the viewpoints of its safety and robustness of the installed system, LED pulse beam was selected as the lidar light source.

Its shallow angle observation visualizes the sea wave motion from just a front of the ship to m ahead. At the coast experiment, two types of LED mini lidars were used for polarization measurement and Raman scattering measurement. They were almost the same optical characteristics except for their LED wavelength, that is, nm for polarization lidar and nm for Raman lidar. To visualize the sea wave dynamics, the summation time was shortened to 0. The shallow angle depression angle of the lidar observation was set in 2 — 10 degrees against the horizontal direction.

The fundamental information of sea wave, which were wave speed, height, period and wavelength, was deduced from the lidar echo. The polarization echo measurement revealed its dependency due to the LED beam incident angle against the sea surface.