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Such a figure is found and named by Bede but his name was not Arthur, and this name and his identification with the Welsh hero is due to the Welsh monk Nennius. Nevertheless the charm and vigor of the story as told later by Geoffrey of Monmouth led to its immense popularity of the story of Arthur in many European courts and to the telling, re-telling, and probable fabrication of many stories over several hundred years.

However though much has been lost, hidden within all of the stories are elements of the older true stories and our analysis shows that some striking, largely unrecognized, links with the other Indo-European myths are present. This volume presents those links. Le Moing Saint-Brieuc and Rennes, — Is Basque an Indo-European Language? Exploring Celtic Origins: New ways forward in archaeology, linguistics, and genetics more.

Celtic Myth in Contemporary Children’s Fantasy

E x p l o r i n g C e l t i c O r i g i n s is the fruit of collaborative work by researchers in archaeology, historical linguistics, and archaeogenetics over the past ten years. T his team works towards the goal of a better understanding T his team works towards the goal of a better understanding of the background in the Bronze Age and Beaker P eriod of the people who emerge as Celts and speakers of Celtic languages documented in the I ron Age and later times.

L ed by S ir Barry Cunliffe and John Koch, the contributors present multidisciplinary chapters in a lively user-friendly style, aimed at accessibility for workers in the other fields, as well as general readers. T he collection stands as a pause to reflect on ways forward at the moment of intellectual history when the genome-wide sequencing of ancient DNA a. How do we deal with what appears to be an irreversible breach in the barrier between science and the humanities?

Exploring Celtic O rigins includes colour maps and illustrations and annotated Further R eading for all chapters. Celtic from the West 3. Atlantic Europe in the Metal Ages: questions of shared language more.

The Celtic languages and groups called Keltoi i. The impetus for this book is to explore from the perspectives of three The impetus for this book is to explore from the perspectives of three disciplines—archaeology, genetics, and linguistics—the background in later European prehistory to these developments. There is a traditional scenario, according to which, Celtic speech and the associated group identity came in to being during the Early Iron Age in the north Alpine zone and then rapidly spread across central and western Europe.

But it has become increasingly difficult to reconcile with recent discoveries pointing towards origins in the deeper past. It should no longer be taken for granted that Atlantic Europe during the 2nd and 3rd millennia BC were pre-Celtic or even pre-Indo-European. The explorations in Celtic from the West 3 are drawn together in this spirit, continuing two earlier volumes in the influential series. Our understanding of the emergence of the Celtic languages and their relationship with the rest of Indo-European still rests Our understanding of the emergence of the Celtic languages and their relationship with the rest of Indo-European still rests largely on a three-way comparison of Gaulish, Brythonic, and Goidelic.


Until the discovery of the first long Celtiberian inscription from Botorrita K. In the coming years, one important factor for our grasp of Celtic as a subset of Indo-European will be how much Palaeohispanic evidence we can confidently include in the comparisons on which our evolving reconstruction of Proto-Celtic is based. Today, the classification remains uncertain for a large body of material from the western Iberian Peninsula outside the Celtiberian area in the eastern Meseta.

The linguistic affiliation of this evidence should be more than an exercise in arbitrary labelling. We will want to know whether the evidence points to distinct branches of Indo-European that had formed somewhere else and then entered the Peninsula in waves or, rather, a pattern of long-term diversification of Indo-European in situ as a dialect continuum, along the lines foreseen by Renfrew.

View on wales. More Info: J. Koch with R. Karl, A. Minard, S. Celtic from the West. More Info: Oxford: Oxbow Books, pp. Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia, more. More Info: cover and front matter only. Tartessian: Celtic in the South-west at the Dawn of History more.

Celtic Mythology: The Nature and Influence of Celtic Myth, from Druidism to Arthurian Legend

The End and Beyond was launched 8 December in Cork. Visionary accounts of the afterlife are attested long before the Common Era, and loomed large in the imaginative universe of early Christianity. The medieval Irish inherited and further transformed this tradition, producing vivid eschatological narratives which had a profound impact throughout Europe as well as being texts of remarkable literary and spiritual power in their own right. This collection, comprising editions and translations of thirty-five texts together with several in-depth studies, is the most comprehensive survey of medieval Irish eschatology ever undertaken: included are sources from the Old Irish, Middle Irish and Early Modern Irish periods, and related material in Latin and Old English.

A fascinating collection for anyone interested in the spiritual world of the medieval Irish, this book will also be a valuable resource for medievalists and religious historians generally. Celtic from the West 2.

More Info: Co-editor and contributing author, Celtic from the West 2. Oxford: Oxbow Books, , pp. Ond nid hynny yw prif bwynt y papur presennol.

Possibly, there is an unorthodox or even polytheistic ring to this idea. But this is not the main point of the present paper. In the corpus of some hundred inscriptions from south Portugal and south-western Spain, funerary for the most part, dating from the Early Iron Age, one finds a verbal formula with variations. Could these be the words of the earliest Celtic elegy? Much remains to be explained about this previously Much remains to be explained about this previously unrecognized episode of Iberian—Scandinavian contact.

What were the exact dates and volume of this trade? What regions and communities were involved? Did people and ideas move with valuable raw materials? A preliminary look at 1 rock-art motifs shared by these regions at this time and 2 the earliest layer of vocabulary shared by Germanic and Celtic but not Indo-European as a whole suggests that seafaring warriors were the primary agents of this trade. Parallels between Iberian warrior stelae and Scandinavian rock art were noted long ago. Only recently have shared motifs been begun to be recognized more fully and closely dated to the span — BC.

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Advances in linguistics and archaeogenetics allow rock-art iconography to be linked to word meanings in Proto-Indo-European, Proto-Celtic, and Proto-Germanic, most notably the extensive shared Celto-Germanic CG vocabulary for warfare, weapons, and ideology. Chemical and isotopic sourcing of metal reveals that copper from Great Orme, North Wales, was imported to Scandinavia from — BC, after which copper came from the south-western Iberian Peninsula — BC.

Many items of CG vocabulary correspond to iconography shared between Bronze Age Scandinavian rock art and warrior stelae from the south-western Iberian Peninsula, also dating to the period — BC. Evidence for metal exchange and a shared iconography and vocabulary of warfare leads to the hypothesis that seafaring warriors were the primary agents for this long-distance exchange.

Celtic Mythology as example of Promethean Transmission – The Apollonian Transmission

Celtic origins reconsidered in the light of the 'archaeogenetics revolution' more. In brief, the evidence for this proposal was 1 a Neolithic woman dated — cal BC from Ballynahatty, near Belfast, whose DNA could be traced to the ancient Near East and was similar to that of many other early European farmers and modern Sardinians, and also showed admixture from western European hunter—gatherers; 2 three men from an Early Bronze Age cist burial dated — cal BC from Rathlin Island, whose DNA, unlike that of the Ballynahatty woman, contained high levels of ancestry from the Pontic—Caspian steppe with central European admixture.

The Neolithic and EBA samples also differed in that the latter showed detailed similarities with the modern Irish population absent from the older genome. Subsequent studies have found similar transformations of populations—from gene pools lacking the steppe component to those with it substantially present—occurring during the period — BC in other parts of western Europe, including Britain and the Iberian Peninsula.

Does King Arthur feature in Y Gododdin more. The origins of the Basques and Celts in Atlantic Europe in the light of new discoveries more. Publication Date: Achos o ddwyn hunaniaeth? Ford examines the nature of poets, the poetic gift, and inspiration, in an early Celtic context. Berkeley: University of California Press.

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Ystoria Taliesin. University of Wales Press: Cardiff. Ford and Bailie: Belmont, Mass. Includes the complete English translation of the Ystoria Taliesin, prose and poems, and on pp. Ford also includes a section of the nature of Celtic poetry and inspiration, with a good selection of the central Irish and Welsh texts in translations.

Haycock, Marged. Haycock examines examples and allusions from some of the more obscure and arcane texts, placing them in a wider Celtic and medieval context. This is largely in Welsh, but the bibliography contains many references to works in English. Koch, John and John Carey.